Studies & Calculations
Studies and calculations provide the support needed to validate our designs. These documents, therefore, pass through an extended process of preparation, review, update, validation, and submittal.
Even with the submittal of these documents not request by the client, the documents are still prepared using the normal process and kept in the project file for future reference.
• Load analysis and distribution plan
A preliminary estimate is provided for power requirements in different areas of the project. Based on this estimate, load distribution plans are developed to show power centers and main power distribution network.
• Energy Modelling
Energy modelling is important to analyse the heating and cooling energy requirements which will help in estimating the load requirements for the different parts of the project.
Input data required from the architect will be collected and applied to the project model. Supported with geographical data for the project location, heat model can be built and energy required to maintain the temperatures of different buildings can be calculated.
One important application for energy modeling is when designing grid-tied solar powered projects as it identifies the areas with high energy density. Solar power shall be applied to these areas in order to achieve the most of the energy saving this power provides.
• Hazardous area classification analysis.
Information from process engineers regarding the types of different materials stored or handled in different parts of the project is collected. Furthermore, piping 3-D model and isometrics are studied to identify drainage and pressure relief points as well as any possible point in which a leakage may take place.
Data collected is analysed and the classification of each area is determined along with the boundary of classification based on the applicable standards. This analysis is then interpreted into layout drawings showing the classification zones and their definitions.
• Indoor and outdoor lighting calculations.
A model is built for the different areas of the project complete with all the required furniture and equipment layouts and any other forms of structures that may obstruct the lighting rays. Material definitions, the functional use of each area, types of lighting fixtures to be used, and assigned emergency escape routes are obtained from the architect and used in this model.
Average, minimum and maximum illumination levels as well as any ratios or design indexes are decided based on the applicable standards.
The information is provided to lighting calculations software (such as Dialux or AGI32) and lighting fixtures are distributed to achieve the required illumination levels.
Lighting study report is developed including the above calculations as well as a study on the utilization of daylight to reduce the energy consumption. The study calculates the natural daylight illumination and the amount of additional artificial light required to achieve the target illumination levels. Lighting networks are divided into circuits such that only parts of the artificial lights can be used to assist natural daylight.
• Equipment sizing including transformers, generators, UPS, DC Battery System, PV solar systems
The load cycle is developed for different loads and superimposed on their sources in order to get individual and overall demand factors for different load centers.
Beside being more accurate, calculating the demand factors by superimposed load cycles offers the advantage of the possibility to depict load peaks which might cause oversizing the supplying equipment only to serve short periods of time. When these loads peaks are depicted, they can be overcome by applying time-operated controllers or by splitting the loads forming the peak demand among different supplying equipment.
Equipment sizing takes into consideration the autonomy time for backup supplies, inrush current of equipment and the protection requirements of the load and its supply.
• PV Solar System Designs
Projects that require PV solar power, whether grid-tied or off-grid, are dealt with in a very meticulous manner to make sure that the system implemented will exhibit the highest possible efficiency.
The project is modelled with it geographical location to define the number of useful sun-hours. The project model also helps defining the shading effect by modelling different structure surrounding the solar panel farm that may obstruct the sun rays while the geographical location also helps deciding the best orientation and tilting angles to be used for the solar panels to obtain the maximum solar energy.
Load cycle analysis will help sizing the solar panel farm. Batteries might be used to provide power to critical loads.
• Fire detection and alarm system study analysis
The type of and spacings between fire detection devices are specified based on the type of materials within the protected area, the air exchange rate, and the dimensions and ceiling style of the protected area. Upon obtaining this information, smoke movement analysis is performed and the type and distribution of fire detection devices are defined.
Escape routes identified by the architect help define the locations of manual alarm initiating devices. Monitor and control modules are usually used to monitor the operation of HVAC and fire fighting systems serving the protected areas. The locations of these modules are defined in coordination with the HVAC and fire fighting engineers.
Layouts , details, an control diagrams are used to visualize the outcome of the above study.
• Equipment heat rejection calculations
The heat generated from each equipment, due to ohmic losses, is calculated considering their loading cycles. The calculated maximum heat generated is relayed to the HVAC engineer to allow him sizing the cooling requirements of the subject area.
• Cable sizing and schedules
Preliminary cable sizing is performed and cable schedules are developed at the early stages of the project considering the ampacity of the cables to withstand their designated loads. Throughout the design development process, the cable sizes are further revisited to ensure their suitability for other design parameters such as static and dynamic voltage drop, short circuit, and the tripping time of protective devices used to protect these cables.
At each design development stage, cable schedules are updated and the final cable sizing calculations and schedule are submitted.